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Green Economy (Sustainable Cities, Renewable Energy)

Financing a sustainable ocean economy (2021)

By U. Rashid Sumaila, Melissa Walsh, Kelly Hoareau, Anthony Cox, Louise Teh, Patrízia Abdallah, Wisdom Akpalu, Zuzy Anna, Dominique Benzaken, Beatrice Crona, Timothy Fitzgerald, Louise Heaps, Ibrahim Issifu, Katia Karousakis, Glenn Marie Lange, Amanda Leland, Dana Miller, Karen Sack, Durreen Shahnaz, Torsten Thiele, Niels Vestergaard, Nobuyuki Yagi & Junjie Zhang

Abstract:

The ocean, which regulates climate and supports vital ecosystem services, is crucial to our Earth system and livelihoods. Yet, it is threatened by anthropogenic pressures and climate change. A healthy ocean that supports a sustainable ocean economy requires adequate financing vehicles that generate, invest, align, and account for financial capital to achieve sustained ocean health and governance. However, the current finance gap is large; we identify key barriers to financing a sustainable ocean economy and suggest how to mitigate them, to incentivize the kind of public and private investments needed for topnotch science and management in support of a sustainable ocean economy.

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LOCAL KNOWLEDGE OF CIPATAT KOLOT ON THE CLIMATE ADAPTATION: SEED, ORGANIC FERTILIZER, AND HARVEST PROCESSING (2021)

By Bahagia, Fachruddin Majeri Mangunjaya, Zuzy Anna, Rimun – Wibowo & Muhammad Shiddiq Ilham Noor

Abstract:

Climate change is characterized by several elements, namely unpredictable rainy and dry seasons, floods and unpredictable droughts. This study aims to determine the indigenous peoples’ local wisdom in adapting to climate change, which includes screening process of local paddy seeds, the use of organic fertilizers, and traditional harvest management strategies. The method used in this research is the qualitative research method combined with the ethnographic approach. This method is applied based on the consideration that the topic of this research is related to the culture and social of indigenous peoples. The data was collected by means of in-depth interviews, observation, and documentation. Informants were selected by using the purposive sampling technique. The results were scrutinized carefully by means of the triangulation process. The results of the study show the facts that the way indigenous peoples deal with climate change is by physically and physiologically selecting seeds and storing seeds for three months so that the seeds will grow stronger. In addition, they only selects paddies that has reached a full state of growth, that is mature to avoid going rotten even though the climate change occurs. Then, they have the traditional rice dryers to get rice dried, thereby enabling those to be more climate-resistant. They also use the organic fertilizer to reduce the production of emissions as a cause of global climate change.

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The Relation of Nitrate and Phosphate to Phytoplankton Abundance in The Upstream Citarum River, West Java, Indonesia (2021)

By Kristina Marsela, Herman Hamdani, Zuzy Anna & Heti Herawati

Abstract:

Citarum River is the longest river in West Java Province, it is utilized for various anthropogenic activities that will affect the water quality, ecological state, and parameters of nitrates and phosphates in the waters of Citarum River. Nitrate and phosphate content can affect Phytoplankton abundance. Phytoplankton is a bioindicator to determine water quality. The purpose of this study is to determine the association of nitrates and phosphates with the abundance of phytoplankton and determine the quality of water in the Citarum River. The study began in August 2020 until September 2020. The research uses a survey method with a purposive sampling technique. Sampling was carried out at 5 stations with 5 times repetitions every 7 days. The water parameter analyzed are transparency, temperature, current, pH, DO, BOD, PO42-,NO3, Phytoplankton abundance, diversity index, and dominance index. Results showed that phytoplankton in the citarum river there were 24 genera divided into 4 phylum. Diversity index during the study reached between 0,91 – 0,99 and dominance index was in the range 0,01 – 0,2. Phytoplankton abundance ranges from 11 to 1292 ind/L. The highest genera phytoplankton composition at each station was found is Synedra as much as 1087 ind/ L. Nitrate content ranges from 0.13 – 0.33 mg/l and phosphate content range from 0.13 – 0.29 mg/l. The acquisition of R square value based on the simultaneous analysis of the relationship between nitrate and phosphate and the abundance of phytoplankton was 43,9% and 56,1% was influenced by other several factor namely temperature, water transparency, nutrient, and water flow.

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Getting Forest Science to Policy Discourse: A Theory-Based Outcome Assessment of a Global Research Programme (2018)

ABSTRACT: This paper presents an assessment of the outcomes of research carried out under the Sustainable Wetlands Adaptation and Mitigation Programme (SWAMP). SWAMP aimed to inform national and international climate policy and practice by developing tools and methods to quantify greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, carbon stocks and flux in tropical wetlands due to land use, land-use change and forestry (LULUCF). This assessment modelled SWAMP’s intended outcomes as a theory of change (ToC) and used qualitative methods to test the ToC and to evaluate whether and how the outcomes were achieved. It found that SWAMP research has helped raise academic and policy interest in wetlands, mangroves and peat forests as carbon reservoirs, and that SWAMP’s recommendations informed policy discourse and supported the development of technical guidance and strategies of sustainable wetland management. However,the research had a weak effect on international and Indonesian climate change policies compared to other factors. The Paris Agreement and Indonesia’s nationally determined contribution (NDC) do not include the quantification of carbon stocks from mangroves, which are not all located in the forest areas. Knowledge translation was achieved through a variety of mechanisms, with direct engagement identified as particularly important. The outcome evaluation approach proved useful as a way of conceptualising and organising the analysis of research impact on development outcomes.

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Indonesian Small Pelagic Resource Accounting (2017)

Abstract:

Fish is one of natural resources, which is important for food security. Small pelagic fish is one of the sources of food, the most widely consumed by people of Indonesia, given the existence of a fairly abundant species, and are found in almost entire territorial waters of Indonesia, and also has a relatively affordable price. Management of pelagic fishery in the waters of Indonesia, thus becomes important, especially to maintain the sustainable industry. Optimal and sustainable fisheries industry can only be achieved with proper planning through the implementation of appropriate management instruments as well. Fisheries resources accounting is one of the planning instruments, which should be used as a main reference of Fisheries Management Plan. In general, fisheries accounting provide insights for policy makers on how the flow of the stocks of fish and its relation to changes in the dynamic of natural and economic activity of fishing. Small pelagic resource accounting is one of the mandates of agenda 21 UNCED recommendation, as formulated in the System of Integrated Environmental and Economic Accounting (SEEA). Besides, this is also a decree of Indonesian Law No. 32/2009 regarding the Management and Environmental protection. The paper discusses the fisheries account, both physical and monetary, for small pelagic fish. By using resource accounting, we can understand the dynamics of the availability of stocks of small pelagic fisheries in Indonesia for the sake of food security. The methods in use is the standard bio-economic modelling, using fox algorithm for parameter estimation, and resource accounting method of the System of National Accounts of FAO [1], adapted to the data existing condition. The results of the analysis, include measurement of standing stocks (physical assets account), fishable biomass, depletion, as well as monetary account. Paper also provides suggestion for management, as well as policy recommendation.

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Forestry, Forest Fires, and Climate Change in Indonesia (2017)

Abstract:

In recent months, strong global growth, rebounding commodity prices, and relatively accommodative financial conditions have benefited the Indonesian economy. The first quarter of 2017 in Indonesia saw resilient GDP growth, moderate inflation, stable exchange rates, an increase in the growth of non-oil exports, and an investment upgrade from ratings agency Standard & Poor’s. Investment growth, however, did not pick up enough to drive overall growth to a higher rate. The poor quality of banking-sector assets and the gaps in tax revenue—despite the fulfilment of the government’s tax-amnesty program—are two of the most immediate economic concerns. President Joko Widodo (Jokowi), who is well into the second half of his term, is under pressure to deliver on his development platform, which includes making progress in sustainable development and climate change mitigation. The effective management of forests is key to this platform. There has been longstanding tension over Indonesia’s forests between the protection of environmental values, including carbon storage, and the production of valuable commodities, including timber, palm oil, and pulpwood, which generate revenue and employment. We survey recent developments in four storylines related to forestry and climate change: first, Indonesia’s commitment to reducing emissions to 29%–41% below projected business-as-usual levels by 2030, as well as the international climate agreements and finance that can help achieve this commitment; second, land-use rights and regulations, including a moratorium on clearing, draining, or setting fires on peatland; third, measures to prevent catastrophic forest fires like those during the 2015 El Niño, including the establishment of the Peatland Restoration Agency; and, fourth, the actions of non-state actors, especially large agribusinesses, in managing forests and peatland. We conclude by discussing differences in the approaches of Jokowi’s administration and those of former president Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono’s administration and by questioning whether Indonesia’s budgeted resources, actions, and results to date are commensurate with its climate commitments.

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Reducing Petroleum Subsidy in Indonesia: An Inter-regional General Equilibrium Analysis (2017)

By Arianto A. Patunru & Arief Anshory Yusuf

Abstract:

This chapter discusses the political economy of petroleum subsidy reform in Indonesia. It starts with a general review on the energy subsidy debate, followed by historical summary of subsidy regimes in Indonesia under different administrations. Using an inter-regional general equilibrium model we simulate two scenarios of petroleum subsidy reform: with and without revenue recycling through indirect tax cut. The results are evaluated at national and regional levels. We show that petroleum subsidy reform through removing the subsidy and recycling the revenue to the economy benefit the overall economy. However, the impact will vary across regions and across industries. Furthermore, we argue that public support for such reform will depend on the sectoral distribution of the resulting economic outputs.

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The switch to refillable bottled water in Indonesia: a serious health risk (2017)

By Ahmad Komarulzaman, Eelke de Jong & Jeroen Smits

Abstract:

In recent years, the consumption of refillable bottled water has increased considerably in emerging countries. However, the quality of this water is often questionable, as authorities lack the capacity to properly check refilling depots. Given that refillable bottled water not only replaces unimproved water sources, but also better-quality sources, like piped and branded bottled water, its increasing use poses a major health risk. We investigate the motives behind the decision to switch to refillable bottled water in Indonesia. Findings indicate that this switch is driven by lifestyle motives, as well as by cost and availability considerations. It is mostly the young affluent households who switch from piped and ‘other’ sources to refillable bottled water. In rural areas, the tendency to make this switch is negatively affected by availability problems and the higher price of refillable bottled water. Availability and cost also influence the switch from branded bottled to refillable bottled water, but here it is the poorer households who have a higher propensity to switch. Further exploration of the lifestyle motive and affordability issues, as well as better monitoring of the refilling depots, are needed to improve the quality of drinking water in Indonesia and other emerging countries.

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Clean water, sanitation and diarrhoea in Indonesia: Effects of household and community factors (2017)

By Ahmad Komarulzaman, Jeroen Smits & Eelke de Jong

Abstract:

iarrhoea is an important health issue in low- and middle-income countries, including Indonesia. We applied a multilevel regression analysis on the Indonesian Demographic and Health Survey to examine the effects of drinking water and sanitation facilities at the household and community level on diarrhoea prevalence among children under five (n = 33,339). The role of the circumstances was explored by studying interactions between the water and sanitation variables and other risk factors. Diarrhoea prevalence was reported by 4820 (14.4%) children, who on average were younger, poorer and were living in a poorer environment. At the household level, piped water was significantly associated with diarrhoea prevalence (OR = 0.797, 95% CI: 0.692–0.918), improved sanitation had no direct effect (OR = 0.992, 95% CI: 0.899–1.096) and water treatment was not related to diarrhoea incidence (OR = 1.106, 95% CI: 0.994–1.232). At the community level, improved water coverage had no direct effect (OR = 1.002, 95% CI: 0.950–1.057) but improved sanitation coverage was associated with lower diarrhoea prevalence (OR = 0.917, 95% CI: 0.843–0.998). Our interaction analysis showed that the protective effects of better sanitation at the community level were increased by better drinking water at the community level. This illustrates the importance of improving both drinking water and sanitation simultaneously.

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Ozonation Pretreatment Evaluation for Xylanase Crude Extract Production from Corncob under Solid-State Fermentation (2017)

By Efri Mardawati, Surya Martha Pratiwi, Robi Andoyo, Tita Rialita, Mochamad Djali, Yana Cahyana, Een Sukarminah & In-In Hanidah

Abstract:

Xylanases are highly exploited enzyme in industries, including food and chemical industry. Xylanases can be utilized in catalyzing the endohydrolysis of 1,4-β-xylosidic linkages in xylan, lignocellulosic component to produce xylose-monomer. This research aims to optimize xylanase production from alternative substrate, corncob. Corncob contains 41.17% of hemicellulose, polymer of xylan. Xylanases are produced through solid state fermentation by Trichoderma viride. Ratio between substrate and moistening solution was 0.63 g/mL with fermentation temperature 32,8OC. Variables varied include incubation time and pretreatment (using autoclave, ozonation, combination of ozonation and autoclave, also without pretreatment). Xylanase activity was measured by DNS method using 1% of xylan as substrate standard. The result showed that the best incubation time is 36 h with 14403.8707 U/mg protein for specific xylanase activity by using autoclave as pretreatment.  Ozonation pretreatment process can increase the enzyme activity of xylanase.

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