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Green Economy (Sustainable Cities, Renewable Energy)

Clean water, sanitation and diarrhoea in Indonesia: Effects of household and community factors (2017)

By Ahmad Komarulzaman, Jeroen Smits & Eelke de Jong

Abstract:

iarrhoea is an important health issue in low- and middle-income countries, including Indonesia. We applied a multilevel regression analysis on the Indonesian Demographic and Health Survey to examine the effects of drinking water and sanitation facilities at the household and community level on diarrhoea prevalence among children under five (n = 33,339). The role of the circumstances was explored by studying interactions between the water and sanitation variables and other risk factors. Diarrhoea prevalence was reported by 4820 (14.4%) children, who on average were younger, poorer and were living in a poorer environment. At the household level, piped water was significantly associated with diarrhoea prevalence (OR = 0.797, 95% CI: 0.692–0.918), improved sanitation had no direct effect (OR = 0.992, 95% CI: 0.899–1.096) and water treatment was not related to diarrhoea incidence (OR = 1.106, 95% CI: 0.994–1.232). At the community level, improved water coverage had no direct effect (OR = 1.002, 95% CI: 0.950–1.057) but improved sanitation coverage was associated with lower diarrhoea prevalence (OR = 0.917, 95% CI: 0.843–0.998). Our interaction analysis showed that the protective effects of better sanitation at the community level were increased by better drinking water at the community level. This illustrates the importance of improving both drinking water and sanitation simultaneously.

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Reducing Petroleum Subsidy in Indonesia: An Inter-regional General Equilibrium Analysis (2017)

By Arianto A. Patunru & Arief Anshory Yusuf

Abstract:

This chapter discusses the political economy of petroleum subsidy reform in Indonesia. It starts with a general review on the energy subsidy debate, followed by historical summary of subsidy regimes in Indonesia under different administrations. Using an inter-regional general equilibrium model we simulate two scenarios of petroleum subsidy reform: with and without revenue recycling through indirect tax cut. The results are evaluated at national and regional levels. We show that petroleum subsidy reform through removing the subsidy and recycling the revenue to the economy benefit the overall economy. However, the impact will vary across regions and across industries. Furthermore, we argue that public support for such reform will depend on the sectoral distribution of the resulting economic outputs.

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Acid gelation of whey protein microbeads of different sizes (2016)

By Robi Andoyo, Fanny Guyomarc’h & Marie-Hélène Famelart

Abstract:

In acidified dairy products, the size of the whey protein particles could play a key role in the final structure of the gel. In the present study, small (SM; 2.5 ± 1.2 μm), medium (MM; 4.2 ± 2.2 μm), and large (LM; 18.4 ± 7.2 μm) whey protein microbeads were produced by mixing a 150 g.kg−1 whey protein isolate (WPI) solution and n-dodecane in the presence of polyglycerolpolyricinoleate (PGPR) surfactant at different shear rates and were then stabilized through heat gelation. The microbeads were then washed by centrifugation, dispersed at 70 or 90 g.kg−1 in milk ultrafiltrate, and acidification was performed at 35 °C by adding glucono-δ-lactone to achieve the final pH of ~4.5 in 6 h. Acid gelation was monitored using small deformation rheology, while the gel microstructure was investigated microscopically. The results showed that smaller size of microbeads promoted gels with a higher stiffness and a smaller pore size distribution. The effects were particularly significant at SM microbeads as the number of particles in this system was higher than in LM or MM, hence more connectivity between particles.

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Getting Forest Science to Policy Discourse: A Theory-Based Outcome Assessment of a Global Research Programme (2018)

By Aidy Halimanjaya, Brian Blecher & Daniel Suryadharma

ABSTRACT: This paper presents an assessment of the outcomes ofresearch carried out under the Sustainable Wetlands Adaptation and Mitigation Programme(SWAMP). SWAMP aimed to inform national and international climate policy andpractice by developing tools and methods to quantify greenhouse gas (GHG)emissions, carbon stocks and flux in tropical wetlands due to land use,land-use change and forestry (LULUCF). This assessment modelled SWAMP’sintended outcomes as a theory of change (ToC) and used qualitative methods totest the ToC and to evaluate whether and how the outcomes were achieved. Itfound that SWAMP research has helped raise academic and policy interest inwetlands, mangroves and peat forests as carbon reservoirs, and that SWAMP’srecommendations informed policy discourse and supported the development oftechnical guidance and strategies of sustainable wetland management. However,the research had a weak effect on international and Indonesian climate changepolicies compared to other factors. The Paris Agreement and Indonesia’snationally determined contribution (NDC) do not include the quantification ofcarbon stocks from mangroves, which are not all located in the forest areas.Knowledge translation was achieved through a variety of mechanisms, with directengagement identified as particularly important. The outcome evaluation approachproved useful as a way of conceptualising and organising the analysis ofresearch impact on development outcomes.

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Model mixtures evidence the respective roles of whey protein particles and casein micelles during acid gelation (2014)

By Robi Andoyo, Fanny Guyomarc'h, Chantal Cauty & Marie Hélène Famelart

Abstract:

In acidified milk, heat-induced whey protein aggregates and casein micelle particles assemble to form a soft gel. The present study was set to evaluate the respective roles of whey protein aggregates (WPIA) and native casein micelles (NMC) during acid gelation by means of changing their ratio in model systems. NMC and WPIA were dispersed in milk permeate at different weight ratios ranging from 0% to 100% NMC for a total protein concentration of ∼45 g kg−1. Acidification was performed at 35 °C by addition of glucono-δ-lactone to achieve the same final pH of 4.5 in 6 h. Acid-induced gelation of these systems was followed using small deformation rheology followed by large deformation test and whey retention measurement at pH 4.5, while their microstructure was investigated microscopically. The results showed that higher content in WPIA promoted faster gelation and led to more elastic gels with smaller pore size and increased whey retention. The effects were particularly dramatic up to ∼10% w/w WPIA, where the aggregates were about equimolar to the casein micelles and covered ∼8% of the micellar surface. The results were discussed in terms of the physical interactions between two populations of colloids of different abilities for acid gelation. It seemed likely that a preferred interaction exists between the casein micelles and the aggregates, and directs the structural and mechanical properties of the acid gel.

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Toward a Low-Carbon Economy for Indonesia: Aspirations, Actions and Scenarios (2016)

By Arianto A. Patunru & Arief Anshory Yusuf

Abstract:

We review the current policy with respect to carbon emission reduction in Indonesia. This objective is put in the context of the current development challenges. The study involves analysis on trends and drivers of emissions, as well as a series of simulation with regards to fuel subsidy elimination, connectivity improvement, and provision of better public transportation. The policy review includes a discussion on the recently issued INDCs (Intended Nationally Determined Contributions). We conclude that Indonesia’s aspiration to achieve a low carbon economy still face significant challenges and that the INDC needs significant improvement.

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Kajian Karakteristik Pure Kering Ubi Jalar dengan Perlakuan Suhu dan Lama Annealing Sebagai Sediaan Pangan Darurat (2016)

By Marleen Sunyoto, Robi Andoyo, H. Radiani A. & Rista Nurmalinda

Abstract:

Klon ubi jalar unggulan Awachy 5 memiliki kandungan pati tinggi dan ketahanan hama yang lebih baik dibandingkan ubi jalar lokal. Namun pengolahannya menjadi pure kering dengan menggunakan suhu tinggi menyebabkan kerusakan granula pati karena kurang stabil terhadap pemanasan dan berdampak pada  tekstur produk yang menjadi lengket. Masalah ini dapat diperbaiki melalui proses modifikasi annealing.. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mendapatkan perlakuan suhu dan lama annealing yang menghasilkan  pure kering ubi jalar dengan karakteristik yang berbeda. Metode penelitian adalah Rancangan Acak Kelompok (RAK) yang terdiri dari 5 perlakuan dengan 3 ulangan, yaitu kontrol, annealing 40oC selama 4 jam; 40oC, 8 jam; 50oC, 4 jam; dan  50oC, 8 jam. Hasil penelitian menunjukan bahwa pure kering ubi jalar dengan perlakuan annealing 50oC selama 4 jam menghasilkan karakteristik terbaik dengan kadar air 4,88%, suhu awal gelatinisasi 54,30oC, viskositas puncak 850,5 cP, viskositas breakdown 29,37 cP, viskositas setback 395 cP, hardness 108,54 gf, adhesiveness-69,774 gf, kesukaan panelis terhadap warna 3,311, daya rehidrasi 3,216 ml/g, rendemen sebesar 23,11%%, serta memiliki kandungan protein 1,76%, lemak 1,89%, abu 0,76%, dan karbohidrat 90,88%. Karakteristik tersebut menunjukan bahwa pure kering dapat menjadi sediaan pangan darurat dalam bentuk basah dan semi basah seperti sup dan produk siap konsumsi dengan direhidrasi.

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Spatial arrangement of casein micelles and whey protein aggregate in acid gels: Insight on mechanisms (2015)

By Robi Andoyo, Fanny Guyomarc'h, Agnes Burel & Marie-Hélène Famelart

Abstract:

Skim milk used for the yoghurt manufacture contains 2 main colloidal particles, the native micellar casein (NMC) and the heat-induced whey protein aggregates (WPA). The aim of this study was to understand how these 2 colloids organize in space to form binary acid gels. While acid milk gels were considered homogeneous for scales typically above ∼10 μm, shorter length scales were examined to investigate the early stages of particle aggregation. The NMC and WPA were dispersed in milk permeate at different protein concentrations, separately or in an 80/20 w/w mixture (MIX). Acidification was performed at 35 °C with glucono-δ-lactone to achieve a final pH at ∼4.5 in 6 h. Acid gelation was studied by rheology, while the microstructure of the gels at pH 4.5 was studied by confocal scanning laser microscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Using Shih et al.’s (1990) model on the rheological data, it seemed that aggregation in the NMC and MIX mixtures was driven by the casein micelles and therefore differed from that of the WPA suspension. The different organizations were confirmed using image analysis of confocal or TEM images. The differences in gel formation were discussed in terms of the different interactive properties of the surface of these 2 colloids, together with their different internal structure.

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Ozonization Technology and Its Effects on The Characteristics and Shelf-life of Some Fresh Foods: A Review (2017)

By Een Sukarminah, Mohamad Djali, Robi Andoyo, Efri Mardawati, Tita Rialita, Yana Cahyana, In in Hanidah & Imas S. Setiasih

Abstract:

The agricultural products such as vegetables, fruits, meat and liquid based products are vulnerable to physical, chemical and microbiological damage due to their high moisture and organic matter contents. On the other hand, the consumer demands high quality food respectively fresh, clean, healthy, and safe. Ozone may be used an alternative or complementary food cleaning. The effectiveness of ozone against contaminating microorganisms present in agricultural products depends on several factors. Mechanism on ozone’s cleaning and sanitizing role in some food products are discussed. Application of ozonisation on cauliflower, red chili and guava crest and liquid based products exposed in some various ozone concentrations and exposures, on microbes’ inactivation are also discussed.

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Indonesian Small Pelagic Resource Accounting (2017)

Abstract:

Fish is one of natural resources, which is important for food security. Small pelagic fish is one of the sources of food, the most widely consumed by people of Indonesia, given the existence of a fairly abundant species, and are found in almost entire territorial waters of Indonesia, and also has a relatively affordable price. Management of pelagic fishery in the waters of Indonesia, thus becomes important, especially to maintain the sustainable industry. Optimal and sustainable fisheries industry can only be achieved with proper planning through the implementation of appropriate management instruments as well. Fisheries resources accounting is one of the planning instruments, which should be used as a main reference of Fisheries Management Plan. In general, fisheries accounting provide insights for policy makers on how the flow of the stocks of fish and its relation to changes in the dynamic of natural and economic activity of fishing. Small pelagic resource accounting is one of the mandates of agenda 21 UNCED recommendation, as formulated in the System of Integrated Environmental and Economic Accounting (SEEA). Besides, this is also a decree of Indonesian Law No. 32/2009 regarding the Management and Environmental protection. The paper discusses the fisheries account, both physical and monetary, for small pelagic fish. By using resource accounting, we can understand the dynamics of the availability of stocks of small pelagic fisheries in Indonesia for the sake of food security. The methods in use is the standard bio-economic modelling, using fox algorithm for parameter estimation, and resource accounting method of the System of National Accounts of FAO [1], adapted to the data existing condition. The results of the analysis, include measurement of standing stocks (physical assets account), fishable biomass, depletion, as well as monetary account. Paper also provides suggestion for management, as well as policy recommendation.

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