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Green Economy (Sustainable Cities, Renewable Energy)

Getting Forest Science to Policy Discourse: A Theory-Based Outcome Assessment of a Global Research Programme (2018)

By Aidy Halimanjaya, Brian Blecher & Daniel Suryadharma

ABSTRACT: This paper presents an assessment of the outcomes of research carried out under the Sustainable Wetlands Adaptation and Mitigation Programme (SWAMP). SWAMP aimed to inform national and international climate policy and practice by developing tools and methods to quantify greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, carbon stocks and flux in tropical wetlands due to land use, land-use change and forestry (LULUCF). This assessment modelled SWAMP’s intended outcomes as a theory of change (ToC) and used qualitative methods to test the ToC and to evaluate whether and how the outcomes were achieved. It found that SWAMP research has helped raise academic and policy interest in wetlands, mangroves and peat forests as carbon reservoirs, and that SWAMP’s recommendations informed policy discourse and supported the development of technical guidance and strategies of sustainable wetland management. However,the research had a weak effect on international and Indonesian climate change policies compared to other factors. The Paris Agreement and Indonesia’s nationally determined contribution (NDC) do not include the quantification of carbon stocks from mangroves, which are not all located in the forest areas. Knowledge translation was achieved through a variety of mechanisms, with direct engagement identified as particularly important. The outcome evaluation approach proved useful as a way of conceptualising and organising the analysis of research impact on development outcomes.

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Kajian Karakteristik Pure Kering Ubi Jalar dengan Perlakuan Suhu dan Lama Annealing Sebagai Sediaan Pangan Darurat (2016)

By Marleen Sunyoto, Robi Andoyo, H. Radiani A. & Rista Nurmalinda

Abstract:

Klon ubi jalar unggulan Awachy 5 memiliki kandungan pati tinggi dan ketahanan hama yang lebih baik dibandingkan ubi jalar lokal. Namun pengolahannya menjadi pure kering dengan menggunakan suhu tinggi menyebabkan kerusakan granula pati karena kurang stabil terhadap pemanasan dan berdampak pada  tekstur produk yang menjadi lengket. Masalah ini dapat diperbaiki melalui proses modifikasi annealing.. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mendapatkan perlakuan suhu dan lama annealing yang menghasilkan  pure kering ubi jalar dengan karakteristik yang berbeda. Metode penelitian adalah Rancangan Acak Kelompok (RAK) yang terdiri dari 5 perlakuan dengan 3 ulangan, yaitu kontrol, annealing 40oC selama 4 jam; 40oC, 8 jam; 50oC, 4 jam; dan  50oC, 8 jam. Hasil penelitian menunjukan bahwa pure kering ubi jalar dengan perlakuan annealing 50oC selama 4 jam menghasilkan karakteristik terbaik dengan kadar air 4,88%, suhu awal gelatinisasi 54,30oC, viskositas puncak 850,5 cP, viskositas breakdown 29,37 cP, viskositas setback 395 cP, hardness 108,54 gf, adhesiveness-69,774 gf, kesukaan panelis terhadap warna 3,311, daya rehidrasi 3,216 ml/g, rendemen sebesar 23,11%%, serta memiliki kandungan protein 1,76%, lemak 1,89%, abu 0,76%, dan karbohidrat 90,88%. Karakteristik tersebut menunjukan bahwa pure kering dapat menjadi sediaan pangan darurat dalam bentuk basah dan semi basah seperti sup dan produk siap konsumsi dengan direhidrasi.

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Toward a Low-Carbon Economy for Indonesia: Aspirations, Actions and Scenarios (2016)

By Arianto A. Patunru & Arief Anshory Yusuf

Abstract:

We review the current policy with respect to carbon emission reduction in Indonesia. This objective is put in the context of the current development challenges. The study involves analysis on trends and drivers of emissions, as well as a series of simulation with regards to fuel subsidy elimination, connectivity improvement, and provision of better public transportation. The policy review includes a discussion on the recently issued INDCs (Intended Nationally Determined Contributions). We conclude that Indonesia’s aspiration to achieve a low carbon economy still face significant challenges and that the INDC needs significant improvement.

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Forestry, Forest Fires, and Climate Change in Indonesia (2017)

Abstract:

In recent months, strong global growth, rebounding commodity prices, and relatively accommodative financial conditions have benefited the Indonesian economy. The first quarter of 2017 in Indonesia saw resilient GDP growth, moderate inflation, stable exchange rates, an increase in the growth of non-oil exports, and an investment upgrade from ratings agency Standard & Poor’s. Investment growth, however, did not pick up enough to drive overall growth to a higher rate. The poor quality of banking-sector assets and the gaps in tax revenue—despite the fulfilment of the government’s tax-amnesty program—are two of the most immediate economic concerns. President Joko Widodo (Jokowi), who is well into the second half of his term, is under pressure to deliver on his development platform, which includes making progress in sustainable development and climate change mitigation. The effective management of forests is key to this platform. There has been longstanding tension over Indonesia’s forests between the protection of environmental values, including carbon storage, and the production of valuable commodities, including timber, palm oil, and pulpwood, which generate revenue and employment. We survey recent developments in four storylines related to forestry and climate change: first, Indonesia’s commitment to reducing emissions to 29%–41% below projected business-as-usual levels by 2030, as well as the international climate agreements and finance that can help achieve this commitment; second, land-use rights and regulations, including a moratorium on clearing, draining, or setting fires on peatland; third, measures to prevent catastrophic forest fires like those during the 2015 El Niño, including the establishment of the Peatland Restoration Agency; and, fourth, the actions of non-state actors, especially large agribusinesses, in managing forests and peatland. We conclude by discussing differences in the approaches of Jokowi’s administration and those of former president Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono’s administration and by questioning whether Indonesia’s budgeted resources, actions, and results to date are commensurate with its climate commitments.

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Indonesian Small Pelagic Resource Accounting (2017)

Abstract:

Fish is one of natural resources, which is important for food security. Small pelagic fish is one of the sources of food, the most widely consumed by people of Indonesia, given the existence of a fairly abundant species, and are found in almost entire territorial waters of Indonesia, and also has a relatively affordable price. Management of pelagic fishery in the waters of Indonesia, thus becomes important, especially to maintain the sustainable industry. Optimal and sustainable fisheries industry can only be achieved with proper planning through the implementation of appropriate management instruments as well. Fisheries resources accounting is one of the planning instruments, which should be used as a main reference of Fisheries Management Plan. In general, fisheries accounting provide insights for policy makers on how the flow of the stocks of fish and its relation to changes in the dynamic of natural and economic activity of fishing. Small pelagic resource accounting is one of the mandates of agenda 21 UNCED recommendation, as formulated in the System of Integrated Environmental and Economic Accounting (SEEA). Besides, this is also a decree of Indonesian Law No. 32/2009 regarding the Management and Environmental protection. The paper discusses the fisheries account, both physical and monetary, for small pelagic fish. By using resource accounting, we can understand the dynamics of the availability of stocks of small pelagic fisheries in Indonesia for the sake of food security. The methods in use is the standard bio-economic modelling, using fox algorithm for parameter estimation, and resource accounting method of the System of National Accounts of FAO [1], adapted to the data existing condition. The results of the analysis, include measurement of standing stocks (physical assets account), fishable biomass, depletion, as well as monetary account. Paper also provides suggestion for management, as well as policy recommendation.

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The switch to refillable bottled water in Indonesia: a serious health risk (2017)

By Ahmad Komarulzaman, Eelke de Jong & Jeroen Smits

Abstract:

In recent years, the consumption of refillable bottled water has increased considerably in emerging countries. However, the quality of this water is often questionable, as authorities lack the capacity to properly check refilling depots. Given that refillable bottled water not only replaces unimproved water sources, but also better-quality sources, like piped and branded bottled water, its increasing use poses a major health risk. We investigate the motives behind the decision to switch to refillable bottled water in Indonesia. Findings indicate that this switch is driven by lifestyle motives, as well as by cost and availability considerations. It is mostly the young affluent households who switch from piped and ‘other’ sources to refillable bottled water. In rural areas, the tendency to make this switch is negatively affected by availability problems and the higher price of refillable bottled water. Availability and cost also influence the switch from branded bottled to refillable bottled water, but here it is the poorer households who have a higher propensity to switch. Further exploration of the lifestyle motive and affordability issues, as well as better monitoring of the refilling depots, are needed to improve the quality of drinking water in Indonesia and other emerging countries.

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Clean water, sanitation and diarrhoea in Indonesia: Effects of household and community factors (2017)

By Ahmad Komarulzaman, Jeroen Smits & Eelke de Jong

Abstract:

iarrhoea is an important health issue in low- and middle-income countries, including Indonesia. We applied a multilevel regression analysis on the Indonesian Demographic and Health Survey to examine the effects of drinking water and sanitation facilities at the household and community level on diarrhoea prevalence among children under five (n = 33,339). The role of the circumstances was explored by studying interactions between the water and sanitation variables and other risk factors. Diarrhoea prevalence was reported by 4820 (14.4%) children, who on average were younger, poorer and were living in a poorer environment. At the household level, piped water was significantly associated with diarrhoea prevalence (OR = 0.797, 95% CI: 0.692–0.918), improved sanitation had no direct effect (OR = 0.992, 95% CI: 0.899–1.096) and water treatment was not related to diarrhoea incidence (OR = 1.106, 95% CI: 0.994–1.232). At the community level, improved water coverage had no direct effect (OR = 1.002, 95% CI: 0.950–1.057) but improved sanitation coverage was associated with lower diarrhoea prevalence (OR = 0.917, 95% CI: 0.843–0.998). Our interaction analysis showed that the protective effects of better sanitation at the community level were increased by better drinking water at the community level. This illustrates the importance of improving both drinking water and sanitation simultaneously.

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Ozonization Technology and Its Effects on The Characteristics and Shelf-life of Some Fresh Foods: A Review (2017)

By Een Sukarminah, Mohamad Djali, Robi Andoyo, Efri Mardawati, Tita Rialita, Yana Cahyana, In in Hanidah & Imas S. Setiasih

Abstract:

The agricultural products such as vegetables, fruits, meat and liquid based products are vulnerable to physical, chemical and microbiological damage due to their high moisture and organic matter contents. On the other hand, the consumer demands high quality food respectively fresh, clean, healthy, and safe. Ozone may be used an alternative or complementary food cleaning. The effectiveness of ozone against contaminating microorganisms present in agricultural products depends on several factors. Mechanism on ozone’s cleaning and sanitizing role in some food products are discussed. Application of ozonisation on cauliflower, red chili and guava crest and liquid based products exposed in some various ozone concentrations and exposures, on microbes’ inactivation are also discussed.

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Acid gelation of whey protein microbeads of different sizes (2016)

By Robi Andoyo, Fanny Guyomarc’h & Marie-Hélène Famelart

Abstract:

In acidified dairy products, the size of the whey protein particles could play a key role in the final structure of the gel. In the present study, small (SM; 2.5 ± 1.2 μm), medium (MM; 4.2 ± 2.2 μm), and large (LM; 18.4 ± 7.2 μm) whey protein microbeads were produced by mixing a 150 g.kg−1 whey protein isolate (WPI) solution and n-dodecane in the presence of polyglycerolpolyricinoleate (PGPR) surfactant at different shear rates and were then stabilized through heat gelation. The microbeads were then washed by centrifugation, dispersed at 70 or 90 g.kg−1 in milk ultrafiltrate, and acidification was performed at 35 °C by adding glucono-δ-lactone to achieve the final pH of ~4.5 in 6 h. Acid gelation was monitored using small deformation rheology, while the gel microstructure was investigated microscopically. The results showed that smaller size of microbeads promoted gels with a higher stiffness and a smaller pore size distribution. The effects were particularly significant at SM microbeads as the number of particles in this system was higher than in LM or MM, hence more connectivity between particles.

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Model mixtures evidence the respective roles of whey protein particles and casein micelles during acid gelation (2014)

By Robi Andoyo, Fanny Guyomarc'h, Chantal Cauty & Marie Hélène Famelart

Abstract:

In acidified milk, heat-induced whey protein aggregates and casein micelle particles assemble to form a soft gel. The present study was set to evaluate the respective roles of whey protein aggregates (WPIA) and native casein micelles (NMC) during acid gelation by means of changing their ratio in model systems. NMC and WPIA were dispersed in milk permeate at different weight ratios ranging from 0% to 100% NMC for a total protein concentration of ∼45 g kg−1. Acidification was performed at 35 °C by addition of glucono-δ-lactone to achieve the same final pH of 4.5 in 6 h. Acid-induced gelation of these systems was followed using small deformation rheology followed by large deformation test and whey retention measurement at pH 4.5, while their microstructure was investigated microscopically. The results showed that higher content in WPIA promoted faster gelation and led to more elastic gels with smaller pore size and increased whey retention. The effects were particularly dramatic up to ∼10% w/w WPIA, where the aggregates were about equimolar to the casein micelles and covered ∼8% of the micellar surface. The results were discussed in terms of the physical interactions between two populations of colloids of different abilities for acid gelation. It seemed likely that a preferred interaction exists between the casein micelles and the aggregates, and directs the structural and mechanical properties of the acid gel.

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