Friday, August 17, 2018
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Green Economy (Sustainable Cities, Renewable Energy)

Indonesian Small Pelagic Resource Accounting (2017)

Abstract:

Fish is one of natural resources, which is important for food security. Small pelagic fish is one of the sources of food, the most widely consumed by people of Indonesia, given the existence of a fairly abundant species, and are found in almost entire territorial waters of Indonesia, and also has a relatively affordable price. Management of pelagic fishery in the waters of Indonesia, thus becomes important, especially to maintain the sustainable industry. Optimal and sustainable fisheries industry can only be achieved with proper planning through the implementation of appropriate management instruments as well. Fisheries resources accounting is one of the planning instruments, which should be used as a main reference of Fisheries Management Plan. In general, fisheries accounting provide insights for policy makers on how the flow of the stocks of fish and its relation to changes in the dynamic of natural and economic activity of fishing. Small pelagic resource accounting is one of the mandates of agenda 21 UNCED recommendation, as formulated in the System of Integrated Environmental and Economic Accounting (SEEA). Besides, this is also a decree of Indonesian Law No. 32/2009 regarding the Management and Environmental protection. The paper discusses the fisheries account, both physical and monetary, for small pelagic fish. By using resource accounting, we can understand the dynamics of the availability of stocks of small pelagic fisheries in Indonesia for the sake of food security. The methods in use is the standard bio-economic modelling, using fox algorithm for parameter estimation, and resource accounting method of the System of National Accounts of FAO [1], adapted to the data existing condition. The results of the analysis, include measurement of standing stocks (physical assets account), fishable biomass, depletion, as well as monetary account. Paper also provides suggestion for management, as well as policy recommendation.

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Forestry, Forest Fires, and Climate Change in Indonesia (2017)

Abstract:

In recent months, strong global growth, rebounding commodity prices, and relatively accommodative financial conditions have benefited the Indonesian economy. The first quarter of 2017 in Indonesia saw resilient GDP growth, moderate inflation, stable exchange rates, an increase in the growth of non-oil exports, and an investment upgrade from ratings agency Standard & Poor’s. Investment growth, however, did not pick up enough to drive overall growth to a higher rate. The poor quality of banking-sector assets and the gaps in tax revenue—despite the fulfilment of the government’s tax-amnesty program—are two of the most immediate economic concerns. President Joko Widodo (Jokowi), who is well into the second half of his term, is under pressure to deliver on his development platform, which includes making progress in sustainable development and climate change mitigation. The effective management of forests is key to this platform. There has been longstanding tension over Indonesia’s forests between the protection of environmental values, including carbon storage, and the production of valuable commodities, including timber, palm oil, and pulpwood, which generate revenue and employment. We survey recent developments in four storylines related to forestry and climate change: first, Indonesia’s commitment to reducing emissions to 29%–41% below projected business-as-usual levels by 2030, as well as the international climate agreements and finance that can help achieve this commitment; second, land-use rights and regulations, including a moratorium on clearing, draining, or setting fires on peatland; third, measures to prevent catastrophic forest fires like those during the 2015 El Niño, including the establishment of the Peatland Restoration Agency; and, fourth, the actions of non-state actors, especially large agribusinesses, in managing forests and peatland. We conclude by discussing differences in the approaches of Jokowi’s administration and those of former president Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono’s administration and by questioning whether Indonesia’s budgeted resources, actions, and results to date are commensurate with its climate commitments.

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Reducing Petroleum Subsidy in Indonesia: An Inter-regional General Equilibrium Analysis (2017)

By Arianto A. Patunru & Arief Anshory Yusuf

Abstract:

This chapter discusses the political economy of petroleum subsidy reform in Indonesia. It starts with a general review on the energy subsidy debate, followed by historical summary of subsidy regimes in Indonesia under different administrations. Using an inter-regional general equilibrium model we simulate two scenarios of petroleum subsidy reform: with and without revenue recycling through indirect tax cut. The results are evaluated at national and regional levels. We show that petroleum subsidy reform through removing the subsidy and recycling the revenue to the economy benefit the overall economy. However, the impact will vary across regions and across industries. Furthermore, we argue that public support for such reform will depend on the sectoral distribution of the resulting economic outputs.

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The switch to refillable bottled water in Indonesia: a serious health risk (2017)

By Ahmad Komarulzaman, Eelke de Jong & Jeroen Smits

Abstract:

In recent years, the consumption of refillable bottled water has increased considerably in emerging countries. However, the quality of this water is often questionable, as authorities lack the capacity to properly check refilling depots. Given that refillable bottled water not only replaces unimproved water sources, but also better-quality sources, like piped and branded bottled water, its increasing use poses a major health risk. We investigate the motives behind the decision to switch to refillable bottled water in Indonesia. Findings indicate that this switch is driven by lifestyle motives, as well as by cost and availability considerations. It is mostly the young affluent households who switch from piped and ‘other’ sources to refillable bottled water. In rural areas, the tendency to make this switch is negatively affected by availability problems and the higher price of refillable bottled water. Availability and cost also influence the switch from branded bottled to refillable bottled water, but here it is the poorer households who have a higher propensity to switch. Further exploration of the lifestyle motive and affordability issues, as well as better monitoring of the refilling depots, are needed to improve the quality of drinking water in Indonesia and other emerging countries.

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Clean water, sanitation and diarrhoea in Indonesia: Effects of household and community factors (2017)

By Ahmad Komarulzaman, Jeroen Smits & Eelke de Jong

Abstract:

iarrhoea is an important health issue in low- and middle-income countries, including Indonesia. We applied a multilevel regression analysis on the Indonesian Demographic and Health Survey to examine the effects of drinking water and sanitation facilities at the household and community level on diarrhoea prevalence among children under five (n = 33,339). The role of the circumstances was explored by studying interactions between the water and sanitation variables and other risk factors. Diarrhoea prevalence was reported by 4820 (14.4%) children, who on average were younger, poorer and were living in a poorer environment. At the household level, piped water was significantly associated with diarrhoea prevalence (OR = 0.797, 95% CI: 0.692–0.918), improved sanitation had no direct effect (OR = 0.992, 95% CI: 0.899–1.096) and water treatment was not related to diarrhoea incidence (OR = 1.106, 95% CI: 0.994–1.232). At the community level, improved water coverage had no direct effect (OR = 1.002, 95% CI: 0.950–1.057) but improved sanitation coverage was associated with lower diarrhoea prevalence (OR = 0.917, 95% CI: 0.843–0.998). Our interaction analysis showed that the protective effects of better sanitation at the community level were increased by better drinking water at the community level. This illustrates the importance of improving both drinking water and sanitation simultaneously.

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Ozonation Pretreatment Evaluation for Xylanase Crude Extract Production from Corncob under Solid-State Fermentation (2017)

By Efri Mardawati, Surya Martha Pratiwi, Robi Andoyo, Tita Rialita, Mochamad Djali, Yana Cahyana, Een Sukarminah & In-In Hanidah

Abstract:

Xylanases are highly exploited enzyme in industries, including food and chemical industry. Xylanases can be utilized in catalyzing the endohydrolysis of 1,4-β-xylosidic linkages in xylan, lignocellulosic component to produce xylose-monomer. This research aims to optimize xylanase production from alternative substrate, corncob. Corncob contains 41.17% of hemicellulose, polymer of xylan. Xylanases are produced through solid state fermentation by Trichoderma viride. Ratio between substrate and moistening solution was 0.63 g/mL with fermentation temperature 32,8OC. Variables varied include incubation time and pretreatment (using autoclave, ozonation, combination of ozonation and autoclave, also without pretreatment). Xylanase activity was measured by DNS method using 1% of xylan as substrate standard. The result showed that the best incubation time is 36 h with 14403.8707 U/mg protein for specific xylanase activity by using autoclave as pretreatment.  Ozonation pretreatment process can increase the enzyme activity of xylanase.

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Ozonization Technology and Its Effects on The Characteristics and Shelf-life of Some Fresh Foods: A Review (2017)

By Een Sukarminah, Mohamad Djali, Robi Andoyo, Efri Mardawati, Tita Rialita, Yana Cahyana, In in Hanidah & Imas S. Setiasih

Abstract:

The agricultural products such as vegetables, fruits, meat and liquid based products are vulnerable to physical, chemical and microbiological damage due to their high moisture and organic matter contents. On the other hand, the consumer demands high quality food respectively fresh, clean, healthy, and safe. Ozone may be used an alternative or complementary food cleaning. The effectiveness of ozone against contaminating microorganisms present in agricultural products depends on several factors. Mechanism on ozone’s cleaning and sanitizing role in some food products are discussed. Application of ozonisation on cauliflower, red chili and guava crest and liquid based products exposed in some various ozone concentrations and exposures, on microbes’ inactivation are also discussed.

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Toward a Low-Carbon Economy for Indonesia: Aspirations, Actions and Scenarios (2016)

By Arianto A. Patunru & Arief Anshory Yusuf

Abstract:

We review the current policy with respect to carbon emission reduction in Indonesia. This objective is put in the context of the current development challenges. The study involves analysis on trends and drivers of emissions, as well as a series of simulation with regards to fuel subsidy elimination, connectivity improvement, and provision of better public transportation. The policy review includes a discussion on the recently issued INDCs (Intended Nationally Determined Contributions). We conclude that Indonesia’s aspiration to achieve a low carbon economy still face significant challenges and that the INDC needs significant improvement.

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Kajian Karakteristik Pure Kering Ubi Jalar dengan Perlakuan Suhu dan Lama Annealing Sebagai Sediaan Pangan Darurat (2016)

By Marleen Sunyoto, Robi Andoyo, H. Radiani A. & Rista Nurmalinda

Abstract:

Klon ubi jalar unggulan Awachy 5 memiliki kandungan pati tinggi dan ketahanan hama yang lebih baik dibandingkan ubi jalar lokal. Namun pengolahannya menjadi pure kering dengan menggunakan suhu tinggi menyebabkan kerusakan granula pati karena kurang stabil terhadap pemanasan dan berdampak pada  tekstur produk yang menjadi lengket. Masalah ini dapat diperbaiki melalui proses modifikasi annealing.. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mendapatkan perlakuan suhu dan lama annealing yang menghasilkan  pure kering ubi jalar dengan karakteristik yang berbeda. Metode penelitian adalah Rancangan Acak Kelompok (RAK) yang terdiri dari 5 perlakuan dengan 3 ulangan, yaitu kontrol, annealing 40oC selama 4 jam; 40oC, 8 jam; 50oC, 4 jam; dan  50oC, 8 jam. Hasil penelitian menunjukan bahwa pure kering ubi jalar dengan perlakuan annealing 50oC selama 4 jam menghasilkan karakteristik terbaik dengan kadar air 4,88%, suhu awal gelatinisasi 54,30oC, viskositas puncak 850,5 cP, viskositas breakdown 29,37 cP, viskositas setback 395 cP, hardness 108,54 gf, adhesiveness-69,774 gf, kesukaan panelis terhadap warna 3,311, daya rehidrasi 3,216 ml/g, rendemen sebesar 23,11%%, serta memiliki kandungan protein 1,76%, lemak 1,89%, abu 0,76%, dan karbohidrat 90,88%. Karakteristik tersebut menunjukan bahwa pure kering dapat menjadi sediaan pangan darurat dalam bentuk basah dan semi basah seperti sup dan produk siap konsumsi dengan direhidrasi.

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Acid gelation of whey protein microbeads of different sizes (2016)

By Robi Andoyo, Fanny Guyomarc’h & Marie-Hélène Famelart

Abstract:

In acidified dairy products, the size of the whey protein particles could play a key role in the final structure of the gel. In the present study, small (SM; 2.5 ± 1.2 μm), medium (MM; 4.2 ± 2.2 μm), and large (LM; 18.4 ± 7.2 μm) whey protein microbeads were produced by mixing a 150 g.kg−1 whey protein isolate (WPI) solution and n-dodecane in the presence of polyglycerolpolyricinoleate (PGPR) surfactant at different shear rates and were then stabilized through heat gelation. The microbeads were then washed by centrifugation, dispersed at 70 or 90 g.kg−1 in milk ultrafiltrate, and acidification was performed at 35 °C by adding glucono-δ-lactone to achieve the final pH of ~4.5 in 6 h. Acid gelation was monitored using small deformation rheology, while the gel microstructure was investigated microscopically. The results showed that smaller size of microbeads promoted gels with a higher stiffness and a smaller pore size distribution. The effects were particularly significant at SM microbeads as the number of particles in this system was higher than in LM or MM, hence more connectivity between particles.

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